Electronic mail, most commonly abbreviated email or e-mail, is a method of exchanging digital messages across the Internet or other computer networks. E-mail systems are based on a store-and-forward model in which e-mail server computer systems accept, forward, deliver and store messages on behalf of users, who only need to connect to the e-mail infrastructure, typically an e-mail server, with a network-enabled device for the duration of message submission or retrieval. Originally, e-mail was always transmitted directly from one user's device to another's; nowadays this is rarely the case.
An electronic mail message consists of two components, the message header, and the message body, which is the email's content. The message header contains control information, including, minimally, an originator's email address and one or more recipient addresses. Usually additional information is added, such as a subject header field.
Originally a text-only communications medium, email was extended to carry multi-media content attachments, which were standardized in with RFC 2045 through RFC 2049, collectively called, Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME).
The foundation for today's global Internet e-mail service was created in the early ARPANET and standards for encoding of messages were proposed as early as 1973 (RFC 561). An e-mail sent in the early 1970s looked very similar to one sent on the Internet today. Conversion from the ARPANET to the Internet in the early 1980s produced the core of the current service.
Network-based e-mail was initially exchanged on the ARPANET in extensions to the File Transfer Protocol (FTP), but is today carried by the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP), first published as Internet standard 10 (RFC 821) in 1982. In the process of transporting e-mail messages between systems, SMTP communicates delivery parameters using a message envelope separately from the message (header and body) itself.
- email is the form required by IETF Request for Comments and working groups and is also recognized in most dictionaries.
- mail was the form used in the original RFC. The service is referred to as mail and a single piece of electronic mail is called a message.
- eMail, capitalizing only the letter M, was common among ARPANET users and early developers from Unix, CMS, AppleLink, eWorld, AOL, GEnie, and Hotmail.
- EMail is a traditional form that has been used in RFCs for the "Author's Address", and is expressly required "...for historical reasons...".
Electronic mail predates the inception of the Internet, and was in fact a crucial tool in creating it.
MIT first demonstrated the Compatible Time-Sharing System (CTSS) in 1961. It allowed multiple users to log into the IBM 7094 from remote dial-up terminals, and to store files online on disk. This new ability encouraged users to share information in new ways. E-mail started in 1965 as a way for multiple users of a time-sharing mainframe computer to communicate. Although the exact history is murky, among the first systems to have such a facility were SDC's Q32 and MIT's CTSS.
Host-based mail systemsEdit
The original email systems allowed communication only between users who logged into the one host or "mainframe", but this could be hundreds or thousands of users within a company or university. By 1966 (or earlier, it is possible that the SAGE system had something similar some time before), such systems allowed email between different companies as long as they ran compatible operating systems, but not to other dissimilar systems.
LAN-based mail systemsEdit
From the early 1980s networked personal computers on LANs became increasingly important. Server based systems similar to the earlier mainframe systems developed, and again initially allowed communication only between users logged into the same server infrastructure, but these also could generally be linked between different companies as long as they ran the same email system and (proprietary) protocol.
Attempts at interoperabilityEdit
- Novell briefly championed the open MHS protocol but abandoned it after purchasing the non-MHS WordPerfect Office (renamed Groupwise)
- uucp was used as an open "glue" between differing mail systems
- The Coloured Book protocols on UK academic networks until 1992
- X.400 in the early 1990s was mandated for government use under GOSIP but almost immediately abandoned by all but a few — in favour of Internet SMTP
From SNDMSG to MSGEdit
In the early 1970s, Ray Tomlinson updated an existing utility called SNDMSG so that it could copy files over the network. Lawrence Roberts, the project manager for the ARPANET development, updated READMAIL and called the program RD. Barry Wessler then updated RD and called it NRD.
Marty Yonke combined SNDMSG and NRD to include reading, sending, and a help system, and called the utility WRD. John Vittal then updated this version to include message forwarding and an Answer command to create replies with the correct address, and called it MSG. With inclusion of these features, MSG is considered to be the first modern email program, from which many other applications have descended.
The rise of ARPANET mailEdit
The ARPANET computer network made a large contribution to the development of e-mail. There is one report that indicates experimental inter-system e-mail transfers began shortly after its creation in 1969. Ray Tomlinson is credited by some as having sent the first email, initiating the use of the "@" sign to separate the names of the user and the user's machine in 1971, when he sent a message from one Digital Equipment Corporation DEC-10 computer to another DEC-10. The two machines were placed next to each other. The ARPANET significantly increased the popularity of e-mail, and it became the killer app of the ARPANET.
Most other networks had their own email protocols and address formats; as the influence of the ARPANET and later the Internet grew, central sites often hosted email gateways that passed mail between the Internet and these other networks. Internet email addressing is still complicated by the need to handle mail destined for these older networks. Some well-known examples of these were UUCP (mostly Unix computers), BITNET (mostly IBM and VAX mainframes at universities), FidoNet (personal computers), DECNET (various networks) and CSNET a forerunner of NSFNet.
An example of an Internet email address that routed mail to a user at a UUCP host:
This was necessary because in early years UUCP computers did not maintain (or consult servers for) information about the location of all hosts they exchanged mail with, but rather only knew how to communicate with a few network neighbors; email messages (and other data such as Usenet News) were passed along in a chain among hosts who had explicitly agreed to share data with each other.
The diagram to the right shows a typical sequence of events that takes place when Alice composes a message using her mail user agent (MUA). She enters the e-mail address of her correspondent, and hits the "send" button. How e-mail works
- Her MUA formats the message in e-mail format and uses the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) to send the message to the local mail transfer agent (MTA), in this case smtp.a.org, run by Alice's internet service provider (ISP).
- The MTA looks at the destination address provided in the SMTP protocol (not from the message header), in this case firstname.lastname@example.org. An Internet e-mail address is a string of the form localpart@exampledomain. The part before the @ sign is the local part of the address, often the username of the recipient, and the part after the @ sign is a domain name or a fully qualified domain name. The MTA resolves a domain name to determine the fully qualified domain name of the mail exchange server in the Domain Name System (DNS).
- The DNS server for the b.org domain, ns.b.org, responds with any MX records listing the mail exchange servers for that domain, in this case mx.b.org, a server run by Bob's ISP.
- smtp.a.org sends the message to mx.b.org using SMTP, which delivers it to the mailbox of the user bob.
- Bob presses the "get mail" button in his MUA, which picks up the message using the Post Office Protocol (POP3).
That sequence of events applies to the majority of e-mail users. However, there are many alternative possibilities and complications to the e-mail system:
- Alice or Bob may use a client connected to a corporate e-mail system, such as IBM Lotus Notes or Microsoft Exchange. These systems often have their own internal e-mail format and their clients typically communicate with the e-mail server using a vendor-specific, proprietary protocol. The server sends or receives e-mail via the Internet through the product's Internet mail gateway which also does any necessary reformatting. If Alice and Bob work for the same company, the entire transaction may happen completely within a single corporate e-mail system.
- Alice may not have a MUA on her computer but instead may connect to a webmail service.
- Alice's computer may run its own MTA, so avoiding the transfer at step 1.
- Bob may pick up his e-mail in many ways, for example using the Internet Message Access Protocol, by logging into mx.b.org and reading it directly, or by using a webmail service.
- Domains usually have several mail exchange servers so that they can continue to accept mail when the main mail exchange server is not available.
- E-mail messages are not secure if e-mail encryption is not used correctly.
Many MTAs used to accept messages for any recipient on the Internet and do their best to deliver them. Such MTAs are called open mail relays. This was very important in the early days of the Internet when network connections were unreliable. If an MTA couldn't reach the destination, it could at least deliver it to a relay closer to the destination. The relay stood a better chance of delivering the message at a later time. However, this mechanism proved to be exploitable by people sending unsolicited bulk e-mail and as a consequence very few modern MTAs are open mail relays, and many MTAs don't accept messages from open mail relays because such messages are very likely to be spam.
Template:Anchor The Internet e-mail message format is defined in RFC 5322 and a series of RFCs, RFC 2045 through RFC 2049, collectively called, Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions, or MIME. Although as of July 13, 2005, RFC 2822 is technically a proposed IETF standard and the MIME RFCs are draft IETF standards, these documents are the standards for the format of Internet e-mail. Prior to the introduction of RFC 2822 in 2001, the format described by RFC 822 was the standard for Internet e-mail for nearly 20 years; it is still the official IETF standard. The IETF reserved the numbers 5321 and 5322 for the updated versions of RFC 2821 (SMTP) and RFC 2822, as it previously did with RFC 821 and RFC 822, honoring the extreme importance of these two RFCs. RFC 822 was published in 1982 and based on the earlier RFC 733 (see).
Internet e-mail messages consist of two major sections:
- Header — Structured into fields such as summary, sender, receiver, and other information about the e-mail.
- Body — The message itself as unstructured text; sometimes containing a signature block at the end. This is exactly the same as the body of a regular letter.
The header is separated from the body by a blank line.
Informally, each line of text in the header that begins with a printable character begins a separate field. The field name starts in the first character of the line and ends before the separator character ":". The separator is then followed by the field value (the "body" of the field). The value is continued onto subsequent lines if those lines have a space or tab as their first character. Field names and values are restricted to 7-bit ASCII characters. Non-ASCII values may be represented using MIME encoded words.
The message header should include at least the following fields:
- From: The e-mail address, and optionally the name of the author(s). In many e-mail clients not changeable except through changing account settings.
- To: The e-mail address(es), and optionally name(s) of the message's recipient(s). Indicates primary recipients (multiple allowed), for secondary recipients see Cc: and Bcc: below.
- Subject: A brief summary of the topic of the message. Certain abbreviations are commonly used in the subject, including "RE:" and "FW:".
- Date: The local time and date when the message was written. Like the From: field, many email clients fill this in automatically when sending. The recipient's client may then display the time in the format and time zone local to him/her.
- Message-ID: Also an automatically generated field; used to prevent multiple delivery and for reference in In-Reply-To: (see below).
Note that the To: field is not necessarily related to the addresses to which the message is delivered. The actual delivery list is supplied separately to the transport protocol, SMTP, which may or may not originally have been extracted from the header content. The "To:" field is similar to the addressing at the top of a conventional letter which is delivered according to the address on the outer envelope. Also note that the "From:" field does not have to be the real sender of the e-mail message. One reason is that it is very easy to fake the "From:" field and let a message seem to be from any mail address. It is possible to digitally sign e-mail, which is much harder to fake, but such signatures require extra programming and often external programs to verify. Some ISPs do not relay e-mail claiming to come from a domain not hosted by them, but very few (if any) check to make sure that the person or even e-mail address named in the "From:" field is the one associated with the connection. Some ISPs apply e-mail authentication systems to e-mail being sent through their MTA to allow other MTAs to detect forged spam that might appear to come from them.
RFC 3864 describes registration procedures for message header fields at the IANA; it provides for permanent and provisional message header field names, including also fields defined for MIME, netnews, and http, and referencing relevant RFCs. Common header fields for email include:
- Bcc: Blind Carbon Copy; addresses added to the SMTP delivery list but not (usually) listed in the message data, remaining invisible to other recipients.
- Cc: Carbon copy; Many e-mail clients will mark e-mail in your inbox differently depending on whether you are in the To: or Cc: list.
- Content-Type: Information about how the message is to be displayed, usually a MIME type.
- In-Reply-To: Message-ID of the message that this is a reply to. Used to link related messages together.
- Precedence: commonly with values "bulk", "junk", or "list"; used to indicate that automated "vacation" or "out of office" responses should not be returned for this mail, e.g. to prevent vacation notices from being sent to all other subscribers of a mailinglist.
- Received: Tracking information generated by mail servers that have previously handled a message, in reverse order (last handler first).
- References: Message-ID of the message that this is a reply to, and the message-id of the message the previous was reply a reply to, etc.
- Reply-To: Address that should be used to reply to the message.
- Sender: Address of the actual sender acting on behalf of the author listed in the From: field (secretary, list manager, etc.).
E-mail was originally designed for 7-bit ASCII. Much e-mail software is 8-bit clean but must assume it will communicate with 7-bit servers and mail readers. The MIME standard introduced character set specifiers and two content transfer encodings to enable transmission of non-ASCII data: quoted printable for mostly 7 bit content with a few characters outside that range and base64 for arbitrary binary data. The 8BITMIME extension was introduced to allow transmission of mail without the need for these encodings but many mail transport agents still do not support it fully. In some countries, several encoding schemes coexist; as the result, by default, the message in a non-Latin alphabet language appears in non-readable form (the only exception is coincidence, when the sender and receiver use the same encoding scheme). Therefore, for international character sets, Unicode is growing in popularity.
Plain text and HTMLEdit
Most modern graphic e-mail clients allow the use of either plain text or HTML for the message body at the option of the user. HTML e-mail messages often include an automatically-generated plain text copy as well, for compatibility reasons.
Advantages of HTML include the ability to include in-line links and images, set apart previous messages in block quotes, wrap naturally on any display, use emphasis such as underlines and italics, and change font styles. Disadvantages include the increased size of the email, privacy concerns about web bugs, abuse of HTML email as a vector for phishing attacks and the spread of malicious software.
Some web based Mailing lists recommend that all posts be made in plain-text for all the above reasons, but also because they have a significant number of readers using text-based e-mail clients such as Mutt.
In order to ensure that HTML sent in an email is rendered properly by the recipient's client software, an additional header must be specified when sending: "Content-type: text/html". Most email programs send this header automatically.
Servers and client applicationsEdit
Messages are exchanged between hosts using the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol with software programs called mail transfer agents. Users can retrieve their messages from servers using standard protocols such as POP or IMAP, or, as is more likely in a large corporate environment, with a proprietary protocol specific to Lotus Notes or Microsoft Exchange Servers. Webmail interfaces allow users to access their mail with any standard web browser, from any computer, rather than relying on an e-mail client.
Mail can be stored on the client, on the server side, or in both places. Standard formats for mailboxes include Maildir and mbox. Several prominent e-mail clients use their own proprietary format and require conversion software to transfer e-mail between them.
Accepting a message obliges an MTA to deliver it, and when a message cannot be delivered, that MTA must send a bounce message back to the sender, indicating the problem.
Upon reception of e-mail messages, e-mail client applications save message in operating system files in the file-system. Some clients save individual messages as separate files, while others use various database formats, often proprietary, for collective storage. A historical standard of storage is the mbox format. The specific format used is often indicated by special filename extensions:
- Used by many e-mail clients including Microsoft Outlook Express, Windows Mail and Mozilla Thunderbird. The files are plain text in MIME format, containing the e-mail header as well as the message contents and attachments in one or more of several formats.
- Used by Apple Mail.
- Used by Microsoft Office Outlook and OfficeLogic Groupware.
- Used by Opera Mail, KMail, and Apple Mail based on the mbox format.
Some applications (like Apple Mail) leave attachments encoded in messages for searching while also saving separate copies of the attachments. Others separate attachments from messages and save them in a specific directory.
URI scheme mailto:Edit
The URI scheme, as registered with the IANA, defines the mailto: scheme for SMTP email addresses. Though its use is not strictly defined, URLs of this form are intended to be used to open the new message window of the user's mail client when the URL is activated, with the address as defined by the URL in the To: field.
There are numerous ways in which people have changed the way they communicate in the last 50 years; e-mail is certainly one of them. Traditionally, social interaction in the local community was the basis for communication – face to face. Yet, today face-to-face meetings are no longer the primary way to communicate as one can use a landline telephone, mobile phones, fax services, or any number of the computer mediated communications such as e-mail.
Research has shown that people actively use e-mail to maintain core social networks, particularly when others live at a distance. However, contradictory to previous research, the results suggest that increases in Internet usage are associated with decreases in other modes of communication, with proficiency of Internet and e-mail use serving as a mediating factor in this relationship. With the introduction of chat messengers and video conference, there are more ways to communicate.
Flaming occurs when a person sends a message with angry or antagonistic content. Flaming is assumed to be more common today because of the ease and impersonality of e-mail communications: confrontations in person or via telephone require direct interaction, where social norms encourage civility, whereas typing a message to another person is an indirect interaction, so civility may be forgotten. Flaming is generally looked down upon by Internet communities as it is considered rude and non-productive.
Also known as "e-mail fatigue", e-mail bankruptcy is when a user ignores a large number of e-mail messages after falling behind in reading and answering them. The reason for falling behind is often due to information overload and a general sense there is so much information that it is not possible to read it all. As a solution, people occasionally send a boilerplate message explaining that the e-mail inbox is being cleared out. Stanford University law professor Lawrence Lessig is credited with coining this term, but he may only have popularized it.
E-mail was widely accepted by the business community as the first broad electronic communication medium and was the first ‘e-revolution’ in business communication. E-mail is very simple to understand and like postal mail, e-mail solves two basic problems of communication: logistics and synchronization (see below).
LAN based email is also an emerging form of usage for business. It not only allows the business user to download mail when offline, it also provides the small business user to have multiple users e-mail ID's with just one e-mail connection.
- The problem of logistics
Much of the business world relies upon communications between people who are not physically in the same building, area or even country; setting up and attending an in-person meeting, telephone call, or conference call can be inconvenient, time-consuming, and costly. E-mail provides a way to exchange information between two or more people with no set-up costs and that is generally far less expensive than physical meetings or phone calls.
- The problem of synchronisation
With real time communication by meetings or phone calls, participants have to work on the same schedule, and each participant must spend the same amount of time in the meeting or call. E-mail allows asynchrony: each participant may control their schedule independently.
Template:Original research Most business workers today spend from one to two hours of their working day on e-mail: reading, ordering, sorting, ‘re-contextualizing’ fragmented information, and writing e-mail. The use of e-mail is increasing due to increasing levels of globalisation—labour division and outsourcing amongst other things. E-mail can lead to some well-known problems:
- Loss of Context: which means that the context is lost forever; there is no way to get the text back. Information in context (as in a newspaper) is much easier and faster to understand than unedited and sometimes unrelated fragments of information. Communicating in context can only be achieved when both parties have a full understanding of the context and issue in question.
- Information overload: E-mail is a push technology—the sender controls who receives the information. Convenient availability of mailing lists and use of "copy all" can lead to people receiving unwanted or irrelevant information of no use to them.
- Inconsistency: E-mail can duplicate information. This can be a problem when a large team is working on documents and information while not in constant contact with the other members of their team.
Despite these disadvantages, e-mail has become the most widely used medium of communication within the business world.
Attachments filesize limitationEdit
- Main article: E-mail attachment
One of the primary limitations to current e-mail, is that while they can have one or more attachments sent with the main message, the overall file size allowed to be sent and received this way is limited. The main problem being that while e-mail is universal, differing service providers, as well as clients, still have often vastly differing systems. Older mail systems may only allow up to 2MB of attachments to be sent and/or received per message, while some newer ones allow up to ten times this amount. Furthermore, due to technical reasons, often a small attachment can increase in size when sent, which can be confusing to senders when trying to assess whether they can or cannot send a file by e-mail, and can result in their message being undelivered and/or returned as undeliverable back to them. As larger and larger file sizes are being created and traded, many users are either forced to upload and download their files using an FTP server, or more popularly, use online file sharing facilities or services, usually over web-friendly HTTP, in order to send and receive them.
A December 2007 New York Times blog post described information overload as "a $650 Billion Drag on the Economy", and the New York Times reported in April 2008 that "E-MAIL has become the bane of some people’s professional lives" due to information overload, yet "none of the current wave of high-profile Internet start-ups focused on e-mail really eliminates the problem of e-mail overload because none helps us prepare replies".
Technology investors reflect similar concerns.
The email services are trying to provide maximum email inbox space to save the large size documents(attachments).
Spamming and computer virusesEdit
Spamming is unsolicited commercial (or bulk) e-mail. Because of the very low cost of sending e-mail, spammers can send hundreds of millions of e-mail messages each day over an inexpensive Internet connection. Hundreds of active spammers sending this volume of mail results in information overload for many computer users who receive voluminous unsolicited e-mail each day.
E-mail worms use e-mail as a way of replicating themselves into vulnerable computers. Although the first e-mail worm affected UNIX computers, the problem is most common today on the more popular Microsoft Windows operating system.
The combination of spam and worm programs results in users receiving a constant drizzle of junk e-mail, which reduces the usefulness of e-mail as a practical tool.
A number of anti-spam techniques mitigate the impact of spam. In the United States, U.S. Congress has also passed a law, the Can Spam Act of 2003, attempting to regulate such e-mail. Australia also has very strict spam laws restricting the sending of spam from an Australian ISP, but its impact has been minimal since most spam comes from regimes that seem reluctant to regulate the sending of spam.
- Main article: E-mail spoofing
E-mail spoofing occurs when the header information of an email is altered to make the message appear to come from a known or trusted source. It is often used as a ruse to collect personal information.
E-mail bombing is the intentional sending of large volumes of messages to a target address. The overloading of the target email address can render it unusable and can even cause the mail server to crash.
- Main article: e-mail privacy
E-mail privacy, without some security precautions, can be compromised because:
- e-mail messages are generally not encrypted.
- e-mail messages have to go through intermediate computers before reaching their destination, meaning it is relatively easy for others to intercept and read messages.
- many Internet Service Providers (ISP) store copies of e-mail messages on their mail servers before they are delivered. The backups of these can remain for up to several months on their server, despite deletion from the mailbox.
- the "Received:"-fields and other information in the e-mail can often identify the sender, preventing anonymous communication.
There are cryptography applications that can serve as a remedy to one or more of the above. For example, Virtual Private Networks or the Tor anonymity network can be used to encrypt traffic from the user machine to a safer network while GPG, PGP, SMEmail  , or S/MIME can be used for end-to-end message encryption, and SMTP STARTTLS or SMTP over Transport Layer Security/Secure Sockets Layer can be used to encrypt communications for a single mail hop between the SMTP client and the SMTP server.
Tracking of sent mailEdit
The original SMTP mail service provides limited mechanisms for tracking a transmitted message, and none for verifying that it has been delivered or read. It requires that each mail server must either deliver it onward or return a failure notice (bounce message), but both software bugs and system failures can cause messages to be lost. To remedy this, the IETF introduced Delivery Status Notifications (delivery receipts) and Message Disposition Notifications (return receipts); however, these are not universally deployed in production.
The US Government has been involved in e-mail in several different ways.
Starting in 1977, the US Postal Service (USPS) recognized that electronic mail and electronic transactions posed a significant threat to First Class mail volumes and revenue. Therefore, the USPS initiated an experimental e-mail service known as E-COM. Electronic messages were transmitted to a post office, printed out, and delivered as hard copy. To take advantage of the service, an individual had to transmit at least 200 messages. The delivery time of the messages was the same as First Class mail and cost 26 cents. Both the Postal Regulatory Commission and the Federal Communications Commission opposed E-COM. The FCC concluded that E-COM constituted common carriage under its jurisdiction and the USPS would have to file a tariff. Three years after initiating the service, USPS canceled E-COM and attempted to sell it off.
The early ARPANET dealt with multiple e-mail clients that had various, and at times incompatible, formats. For example, in the system Multics, the "@" sign meant "kill line" and anything after the "@" sign was ignored. The Department of Defense DARPA desired to have uniformity and interoperability for e-mail and therefore funded efforts to drive towards unified inter-operable standards. This led to David Crocker, John Vittal, Kenneth Pogran, and Austin Henderson publishing RFC 733, "Standard for the Format of ARPA Network Text Message" (November 21, 1977), which was apparently not effective. In 1979, a meeting was held at BBN to resolve incompatibility issues. Jon Postel recounted the meeting in RFC 808, "Summary of Computer Mail Services Meeting Held at BBN on 10 January 1979" (March 1, 1982), which includes an appendix listing the varying e-mail systems at the time. This, in turn, lead to the release of David Crocker's RFC 822, "Standard for the Format of ARPA Internet Text Messages" (August 13, 1982).
The National Science Foundation took over operations of the ARPANET and Internet from the Department of Defense, and initiated NSFNet, a new backbone for the network. A part of the NSFNet AUP forbade commercial traffic. In 1988, Vint Cerf arranged for an interconnection of MCI Mail with NSFNET on an experimental basis. The following year Compuserve e-mail interconnected with NSFNET. Within a few years the commercial traffic restriction was removed from NSFNETs AUP, and NSFNET was privatised.
In the late 1990s, the Federal Trade Commission grew concerned with fraud transpiring in e-mail, and initiated a series of procedures on spam, fraud, and phishing. In 2004, FTC jurisdiction over spam was codified into law in the form of the CAN SPAM Act. Several other US Federal Agencies have also exercised jurisdiction including the Department of Justice and the Secret Service.
- E-mail encryption
- Google Wave
- HTML e-mail
- Internet fax
- L- or letter mail, e-mail letter and letter e-mail
- Anti-spam techniques (e-mail)
- Computer virus
- CompuServe (first consumer service)
- E-mail art
- E-mail jamming
- E-mail spam
- E-mail spoofing
- E-mail storm
- E-mail subject abbreviations
- Information overload
- Internet humor
- Internet slang
- Usenet quoting
Clients and serversEdit
- E-mail address
- E-mail authentication
- E-mail client, Comparison of e-mail clients
- E-mail hosting service
- ↑ Klensin, J. (October 2008). "RFC 5321 - Simple Mail Transfer Protocol". Network Working Group. http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5321#section-2.3.11. Retrieved 2010-02-27.
- ↑ "A Matter of (Wired News) Style", Tony Long, Wired magazine, 23 October 2000
- ↑ "Readers on (Wired News) Style", Wired magazine, 24 October 2000
- ↑ "RFC Editor Terms List". IETF. http://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc-style-guide/terms-online-03.txt.
- ↑ AskOxford Language Query team. "What is the correct way to spell 'e' words such as 'email', 'ecommerce', 'egovernment'?". FAQ. Oxford University Press. http://www.askoxford.com/asktheexperts/faq/aboutspelling/email. Retrieved 4 September 2009. "We recommend email, as this is now by far the most common form"
- ↑ Reference.com
- ↑ Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2006
- ↑ The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
- ↑ Princeton University WordNet 3.0
- ↑ The American Heritage Science Dictionary, 2002
- ↑ Microsoft Corporation Editorial Style Board (November 12, 2003). "Microsoft Manual of Style for Technical Publications Third Edition". http://safari.oreilly.com/0735617465.
- ↑ APStylebook.com
- ↑ RFC 821 (rfc821) - Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
- ↑ 14.0 14.1 RFC 1939 (rfc1939) - Post Office Protocol - Version 3
- ↑ 15.0 15.1 RFC 3501 (rfc3501) - Internet Message Access Protocol - version 4rev1
- ↑ "RFC Style Guide", Table of decisions on consistent usage in RFC
- ↑ "CTSS, Compatible Time-Sharing System" (September 4, 2006), University of South Alabama, USA-CTSS.
- ↑ Tom Van Vleck, "The IBM 7094 and CTSS" (September 10, 2004), Multicians.org (Multics), web: Multicians-7094.
- ↑ Email History
- ↑ The History of Electronic Mail
- ↑ The First Email
- ↑ Wave New World,Time Magazine, October 19, 2009, p.48
- ↑ How E-mail Works. [internet video]. howstuffworks.com. 2008. http://www.webcastr.com/videos/informational/how-email-works.html.
- ↑ Template:Citeweb
- ↑ Ken Simpson, "An update to the email standards" (October 3, 2008), blog.mailchannels.com, web: MailChannels Blog Entry.
- ↑ Template:Citebook
- ↑ Template:Citeweb
- ↑ "When posting to a RootsWeb mailing list..."
- ↑ "...Plain text, 72 characters per line..."
- ↑ How to Prevent the Winmail.dat File from Being Sent to Internet Users
- ↑ "File Extension .EML Details". FILExt - The File Extension Source. http://filext.com/file-extension/EML. Retrieved 2009-09-26.
- ↑ RFC 2368 section 3 : by Paul Hoffman in 1998 discusses operation of the "mailto" URL.
- ↑ Stern, Michael J.Information, Communication & Society; Oct2008, Vol. 11 Issue 5, p591-616, 26p. CLB Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, USA.
- ↑ Barrett, Grant (December 23, 2007). "All We Are Saying.". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/12/23/weekinreview/23buzzwords.html?ref=weekinreview. Retrieved 2007-12-24.
- ↑ "Email Right to Privacy - Why Small Businesses Care". Anita Campbell. 2007-06-19. http://www.smallbiztrends.com/2007/06/email-has-right-to-privacy-why-small-businesses-care.html.
- ↑ "Exchange 2007: Attachment Size Increase,...". TechNet Magazine, Microsoft.com US. 2010-03-25. http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/magazine/2009.01.exchangeqa.aspx?pr=blog.
- ↑ Lohr, Steve (2007-12-20). "Is Information Overload a $650 Billion Drag on the Economy?". New York Times. http://bits.blogs.nytimes.com/2007/12/20/is-information-overload-a-650-billion-drag-on-the-economy. Retrieved May 1, 2010.
- ↑ Stross, Randall (2008-04-20). "Struggling to Evade the E-Mail Tsunami". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/04/20/technology/20digi.html?_r=2&oref=slogin&oref=slogin. Retrieved May 1, 2010.
- ↑ "Did Darwin Skip Over Email?". Foundry Group. 2008-04-28. http://www.foundrygroup.com/blog/archives/2008/04/did-darwin-skip-over-email.php.
- ↑ Rich Kawanagh. The top ten e-mail spam list of 2005. ITVibe news, 2006, january 02, ITvibe.com
- ↑ How Microsoft is losing the war on spam Salon.com
- ↑ Spam Bill 2003 (PDF)
- ↑ Mohsen Toorani, SMEmail - A New Protocol for the Secure E-mail in Mobile Environments, Proceedings of the Australian Telecommunications Networks and Applications Conference (ATNAC'08), pp.39-44, Adelaide, Australia, December 2008. (PDF)
- ↑ About.com
- ↑ Webdevelopersnotes.com
- ↑ Microsoft.com
- ↑ In re Request for declaratory ruling and investigation by Graphnet Systems, Inc., concerning the proposed E-COM service, FCC Docket No. 79-6 (September 4, 1979)
- ↑ History of the United States Postal Service, USPS
- ↑ Hardy, Ian R; The Evolution of ARPANET Email; 1996-05-13; History Thesis Paper; University of California at Berkeley
- ↑ James Bovard, The Law Dinosaur: The US Postal Service, CATO Policy Analysis (February 1985)
- ↑ Jay Akkad, The History of Email
- ↑ Cybertelecom : Email
- ↑ US Postal Service: Postal Activities and Laws Related to Electronic Commerce, GAO-00-188
- ↑ Implications of Electronic Mail and Message Systems for the U.S. Postal Service , Office of Technology Assessment, Congress of the United States, August 1982
- ↑ Jay Akkad, The History of Email
- ↑ Email History, How Email was Invented, Living Internet
- ↑ Cybertelecom : Internet History
- ↑ Cybertelecom : SPAM Reference
- ↑ Cybertelecom : Can Spam Act
- Cemil Betanov, Introduction to X.400, Artech House, ISBN 0890065977.
- Lawrence Hughes, Internet e-mail Protocols, Standards and Implementation, Artech House Publishers, ISBN 0890069395.
- Kevin Johnson, Internet Email Protocols: A Developer's Guide, Addison-Wesley Professional, ISBN 0201432889.
- Pete Loshin, Essential Email Standards: RFCs and Protocols Made Practical, John Wiley & Sons, ISBN 0471345970.
- Sara Radicati, Electronic Mail: An Introduction to the X.400 Message Handling Standards, Mcgraw-Hill, ISBN 0070511047.
- John Rhoton, Programmer's Guide to Internet Mail: SMTP, POP, IMAP, and LDAP, Elsevier, ISBN 1555582125.
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- IANA's list of standard header fields
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